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Docker-Compose 容器集群的快速编排方法

2022-07-19 22:18:05服务器0人已围观

简介Docker-Compose项目由Python编写,调用Docker服务提供的API来对容器进行管理。因此,只要所操作的平台支持Docker API, 就可以在其上利用Compose来进行编排管理,这篇文章主要介绍了Docker-Compose 容器集群的快速编排,需要的朋友可以参考下

目录
Docker-Compose 容器集群的快速编排Docker-compose 简介compose 部署Docker Compose 环境安装YAML 文件格式及编写注意事项Docker compose 常用命令字段编写Docker Compose搭建lnmp论坛配置mysql配置php

Docker-Compose 容器集群的快速编排

Docker-compose 简介

Docker-Compose项目是Docker官方的开源项目,负责实现对Docker容器集群的快速编排。Docker-Compose将所管理的容器分为三层,分别是 工程(project),服务(service)以及容器(container)。Docker-Compose运行目录下的所有文件(docker-compose.yml,extends文件或环境变量文件等)组成一个工程,若无特殊指定工程名即为当前目录名。一个工程当中可包含多个服务,每个服务中定义了容器运行的镜像、参数、依赖。一个服务当中可包括多个容器实例,Docker-Compose并没有解决负载均衡的问题,因此需要借助其它工具实现服务发现及负载均衡,比如 Consul。Docker-Compose的工程配置文件默认为docker-compose.yml,可通过环境变量COMPOSE_FILE或-f参数自定义配置文件,其定义了多个有依赖关系的服务及每个服务运行的容器。使用一个Dockerfile模板文件,可以让用户很方便的定义一个单独的应用容器。在工作中,经常会碰到需要多个容器相互配合来完成某项任务的情况。例如要实现一个Web项目,除了Web服务容器本身,往往还需要再加上后端的数据库服务容器,甚至还包括负载均衡容器等。Compose允许用户通过一个单独的docker-compose.yml模板文件(YAML 格式)来定义一组相关联的应用容器为一个项目(project)。Docker-Compose项目由Python编写,调用Docker服务提供的API来对容器进行管理。因此,只要所操作的平台支持Docker API, 就可以在其上利用Compose来进行编排管理。

compose 部署

Docker Compose 环境安装

Docker Compose 是 Docker 的独立产品,因此需要安装 Docker 之后在单独安装 Docker Compose

#下载curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.21.1/docker-compose-`uname -s`-`uname -m` -o /usr/local/bin/docker-compose #或者已下载过直接从宿主机传入到/opt目录下 mv docker-compose /usr/local/bin/ #安装 chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose #查看版本docker-compose --version 

YAML 文件格式及编写注意事项

YAML 是一种标记语言,它可以很直观的展示数据序列化格式,可读性高。类似于 XML数据描述语言,语法比 XML 简单的很多。YAML 数据结构通过缩进来表示,连续的项目通过减号来表示,键值对用冒号分隔,数组用中括号 [ ] 括起来, hash 用花括号 { } 括起来。YAML 文件格式及编写注意事项大小与敏感通过缩进表示层级关系不支持制表符tab键缩进,只能使用空格缩进缩进的空格数目不重要,只要相同层级左对齐,通常开头缩进2个空格用#号注释符号字符后缩进1个空格,如冒号:、逗号,、横杠-

Docker Compose配置常用字段

字段描述build指定Dockerfile文件名(要指定的Dockerfile文件需要在build标签的子级标签中用dockerfile标签指定)dockerfile构建镜像上下文路径context可以是dockerfile路径,或者是执行git 仓库的url地址image指定镜像(已存在)command执行命令,会覆盖容器启动后默认执行的命令(会覆盖Dockerfile的CMD指令)container_name指定容器名称,由于容器名称是唯一的,如果指定自定义名称,则无法scaledeploy指定部署和运行服务相关配置,只能在Swarm模式使用enviroment添加环境变量networks加入网络,引用顶级networks下条目networks-mode设置容器的网络模式,host、bridge.....ports暴露容器端口,与-p 相同,但是端口不能低于60volumes挂载一个宿主机目录或命令卷到容器,命名卷要在顶级volumes 定义卷名称volumes_from从另一个服务或容器挂载卷,可选参数 :ro 和 :rw,仅版本'2'支持hostname容器主机名sysctls在容器内设置内核参数links连接到另一个容器,- 服务名称[ :服务别名 ]privilcgcd用来给容器root权限,注意是不安全的,truc|false(开启|关闭)restart重启策略,定义是否重启容器; no(默认,不重启), always(总是重启), on-failure,(退出状态非0时重启), on-failure:3 ,在容器非正常退出时重启容器,最多重启3次, unless-stoped 在容器退出时总是重启容器,但是不考虑在Docker 守护进程启动时就已经停止了的容器depends_on此标签用于解决容器的依赖,启动先后问题。如启动应用容器,需要先启动数据库容器php: depends_on: - apache - mysql

Docker compose 常用命令字段

字段描述build重新构建服务ps列出容器up创建和启动容器exec在容器里面执行命令scale指定一个服务容器启动数量top显示正在运行的容器进程logs查看服务容器的输出down删除容器、网络、数据卷和镜像stop/start/restart停止/启动/重启服务

编写Docker Compose搭建lnmp论坛

部署前准备
vim /etc/sysctl.confnet.ipv4.ip_forward = 1           #末行添加sysctl -p                         #刷新配置systemctl restart docker          #重启docker服务

配置nginx
编写dockerfile文件
FROM centos:7MAINTAINER this is nginx images<gb>RUN yum -y install pcre-devel zlib-devel gcc gcc-c++ makeRUN useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin nginxADD nginx-1.12.0.tar.gz /opt/WORKDIR /opt/nginx-1.12.0/RUN ./configure \--prefix=/usr/local/nginx \--user=nginx \--group=nginx \--with-http_stub_status_module && make -j4 &&  make installENV PATH $PATH:/usr/local/nginx/sbinADD nginx.conf /usr/local/nginx/conf/RUN chmod 777 -R /usr/local/nginx/html/EXPOSE 80EXPOSE 443CMD ["/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx", "-g", "daemon off;"]

准备配置好nginx配置文件(添加支持php解析配置)

#user  nobody;worker_processes  1;#error_log  logs/error.log;#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;#error_log  logs/error.log  info;#pid        logs/nginx.pid;events {    worker_connections  1024;}http {    include       mime.types;    default_type  application/octet-stream;#log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '#                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '#                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';#access_log  logs/access.log  main;sendfile        on;#tcp_nopush     on;#keepalive_timeout  0;keepalive_timeout  65;#gzip  on;server {    listen       80;    server_name  localhost;    charset utf-8;    #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;            location / {            root   html;            index  index.html index.php;        }        #error_page  404              /404.html;        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html        #        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;        location = /50x.html {            root   html;        }        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80        #        #location ~ \.php$ {        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;        #}        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000        #        location ~ \.php$ {            root           html;            fastcgi_pass   172.18.0.30:9000;            fastcgi_index  index.php;            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;            include        fastcgi_params;        }        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root        # concurs with nginx's one        #        #location ~ /\.ht {        #    deny  all;        #}    }    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration    #    #server {    #    listen       8000;    #    listen       somename:8080;    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;    #    location / {    #        root   html;    #        index  index.html index.htm;    #    }    #}    # HTTPS server    #    #server {    #    listen       443 ssl;    #    server_name  localhost;    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;    #    location / {    #        root   html;    #        index  index.html index.htm;    #    }    #}}    折叠 

配置mysql

准备配置文件
vim my.cnf[client]port = 3306socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock[mysqld]user = mysqlbasedir=/usr/local/mysqldatadir=/usr/local/mysql/dataport = 3306character-set-server=utf8pid-file = /usr/local/mysql/mysqld.pidsocket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sockbind-address = 0.0.0.0skip-name-resolvemax_connections=2048default-storage-engine=INNODBmax_allowed_packet=16Mserver-id = 1sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES
编写dockerfile文件
FROM centos:7MAINTAINER this is mysql image <lnmp>RUN yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ ncurses ncurses-devel bison cmake make;useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin mysqlADD mysql-boost-5.7.20.tar.gz /usr/local/src/WORKDIR /usr/local/src/mysql-5.7.20/RUN cmake \-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc \-DSYSTEMD_PID_DIR=/usr/local/mysql \-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8  \-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all \-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \-DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data \-DWITH_BOOST=boost \-DWITH_SYSTEMD=1;make -j 4;make installADD my.cnf /etc/my.cnfEXPOSE 3306RUN chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/;chown mysql:mysql /etc/my.cnfWORKDIR /usr/local/mysql/bin/RUN ./mysqld \--initialize-insecure \--user=mysql \--basedir=/usr/local/mysql \--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data;cp /usr/local/mysql/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/;systemctl enable mysqldENV PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:/usr/local/mysql/lib:$PATHVOLUME [ "/usr/local/mysql" ]CMD ["/usr/sbin/init"]

配置php

编写Dockerfile文件

FROM centos:7MAINTAINER this is php image <lnmp>RUN yum install -y gd \libjpeg libjpeg-devel \libpng libpng-devel \freetype freetype-devel \libxml2 libxml2-devel \zlib zlib-devel \curl curl-devel \openssl openssl-devel \gcc gcc-c++ make pcre-devel;useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin nginxADD php-7.1.10.tar.bz2 /usr/local/src/WORKDIR /usr/local/src/php-7.1.10RUN ./configure \--prefix=/usr/local/php \--with-mysql-sock=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \--with-mysqli \--with-zlib \--with-curl \--with-gd \--with-jpeg-dir \--with-png-dir \--with-freetype-dir \--with-openssl \--enable-fpm \--enable-mbstring \--enable-xml \--enable-session \--enable-ftp \--enable-pdo \--enable-tokenizer \--enable-zip ; make -j 4 ; make installENV PATH /usr/local/php/bin:/usr/local/php/sbin:$PATHADD php.ini /usr/local/php/lib/ADD php-fpm.conf /usr/local/php/etc/RUN rm -rf /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf.defaultADD www.conf /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.d/EXPOSE 9000CMD /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm -F

将所需的三个配置文件修改后写入

vim php-fpm.conf[global]pid = run/php-fpm.pidinclude=/usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.d/*.confvim php.ini[PHP]engine = Onshort_open_tag = Offprecision = 14output_buffering = 4096zlib.output_compression = Offimplicit_flush = Offunserialize_callback_func =serialize_precision = -1disable_functions =disable_classes =zend.enable_gc = Onexpose_php = Onmax_execution_time = 30max_input_time = 60memory_limit = 128Merror_reporting = E_ALLdisplay_errors = Ondisplay_startup_errors = Onlog_errors = Onlog_errors_max_len = 1024ignore_repeated_errors = Offignore_repeated_source = Offreport_memleaks = Ontrack_errors = Onhtml_errors = Onvariables_order = "GPCS"request_order = "GP"register_argc_argv = Offauto_globals_jit = Onpost_max_size = 8Mauto_prepend_file =auto_append_file =default_mimetype = "text/html"default_charset = "UTF-8"doc_root =user_dir =enable_dl = Offfile_uploads = Onupload_max_filesize = 2Mmax_file_uploads = 20allow_url_fopen = Onallow_url_include = Offdefault_socket_timeout = 60[CLI Server]cli_server.color = On[Date]date.timezone = Asia/Shanghai[filter][iconv][intl][sqlite3][Pcre][Pdo][Pdo_mysql]pdo_mysql.cache_size = 2000pdo_mysql.default_socket=[Phar][mail function]SMTP = localhostsmtp_port = 25mail.add_x_header = On[SQL]sql.safe_mode = Off[ODBC]odbc.allow_persistent = Onodbc.check_persistent = Onodbc.max_persistent = -1odbc.max_links = -1odbc.defaultlrl = 4096odbc.defaultbinmode = 1[Interbase]ibase.allow_persistent = 1ibase.max_persistent = -1ibase.max_links = -1ibase.timestampformat = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"ibase.dateformat = "%Y-%m-%d"ibase.timeformat = "%H:%M:%S"[MySQLi]mysqli.max_persistent = -1mysqli.allow_persistent = Onmysqli.max_links = -1mysqli.cache_size = 2000mysqli.default_port = 3306mysqli.default_socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sockmysqli.default_host =mysqli.default_user =mysqli.default_pw =mysqli.reconnect = Off[mysqlnd]mysqlnd.collect_statistics = Onmysqlnd.collect_memory_statistics = On[OCI8][PostgreSQL]pgsql.allow_persistent = Onpgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Offpgsql.max_persistent = -1pgsql.max_links = -1pgsql.ignore_notice = 0pgsql.log_notice = 0[bcmath]bcmath.scale = 0[browscap][Session]session.save_handler = filessession.use_strict_mode = 0session.use_cookies = 1session.use_only_cookies = 1session.name = PHPSESSIDsession.auto_start = 0session.cookie_lifetime = 0session.cookie_path = /session.cookie_domain =session.cookie_httponly =session.serialize_handler = phpsession.gc_probability = 1session.gc_divisor = 1000session.gc_maxlifetime = 1440session.referer_check =session.cache_limiter = nocachesession.cache_expire = 180session.use_trans_sid = 0session.sid_length = 26session.trans_sid_tags = "a=href,area=href,frame=src,form="session.sid_bits_per_character = 5[Assertion]zend.assertions = 1[COM][mbstring][gd][exif][Tidy]tidy.clean_output = Off[soap]soap.wsdl_cache_enabled=1soap.wsdl_cache_dir="/tmp"soap.wsdl_cache_ttl=86400soap.wsdl_cache_limit = 5[sysvshm][ldap]ldap.max_links = -1[mcrypt][dba][opcache][curl][openssl]vim php-fpm.conf[global]pid = run/php-fpm.pidinclude=/usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf折叠 vim www.conf[www]user = nginxgroup = nginxlisten = 172.18.0.30:9000pm = dynamicpm.max_children = 5pm.start_servers = 2pm.min_spare_servers = 1pm.max_spare_servers = 3

编写docker-compose.yml文件

version: '2'services:  nginx:    container_name: nginx    build:      context: ./nginx      dockerfile: Dockerfile    ports:    - 80:80    networks:      lnmp:        ipv4_address: 172.18.0.10  mysql:    container_name: mysql    privileged: true    build:      context: ./mysql      dockerfile: Dockerfile    ports:   - 3306:3306     networks:          lnmp:     ipv4_address: 172.18.0.20       php:         depends_on:     - nginx     - mysql       build:       context: ./php       dockerfile: Dockerfile       container_name: php       ports:     - 9000:9000       networks:       lnmp:       ipv4_address: 172.18.0.30         volumes_from:     - nginx     - mysqlnetworks:  lnmp:    driver: bridge    ipam:      config:      - subnet: 172.18.0.0/16折叠 #启动容器docker-compose -f docker-compose.yml up -ddocker ps -a

到此这篇关于Docker-Compose 容器集群的快速编排的文章就介绍到这了,更多相关Docker Compose 容器集群内容请搜索技术员网以前的文章或继续浏览下面的相关文章希望大家以后多多支持技术员网!

Tags: Docker Compose 容器集群  Docker Compose 容器  

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